Christopher Harding

was consultant for European and International Criminal Law, Theory of Punishment and History of Crime and Punishment.
Professor of Law (since 1995), Department of Law and Criminology, Aberystwyth University A writer, researcher, teacher, reviewer and academic strategist, and at present a Professor of Law at Aberystwyth University. Studied at the Universities of Oxford and Exeter. Specialist field: the normative, social scientific and cultural aspects of the interrelation between individuals and groups and organisations, both historically and in contemporary society, and at national, European and international levels. A teacher and researcher at Aberystwyth University since the 1970s and Professor of Law since 1995, teaching undergraduate and postgraduate classes in Law and Criminology, and providing research supervision, both in Aberystwyth and elsewhere. Author of several books, academic papers, reviews, reports and other pieces on legal, criminological and historical subjects.

Teaching and research experience

He has carried out teaching and research in the fields of European law, International law, penal and legal theory, and the history of crime and punishment. A full list of publications is appended for reference. For detailed information in relation to research activity, publications, internal and external collaboration, and postgraduate supervision, see :

Recent research activity

Much of his recent research activity has focused on the legal control of business cartels, as both a legal and criminological enquiry into the nature and regulation of business collusion, and on the emergence of the EU regime of criminal law. In relation to some of his research into business cartels, he was award a grant of £87,743 by the Leverhulme Trust in 2012 to carry out research into the impact of anti-cartel sanctions (2012-14, see: project web site at, and also in 2012 awarded a grant of £5,185 by Aberystwyth University for the development of a pilot computerised simulation programme for plotting decision-making in cartel participation and legal enforcement activity. He has presented submissions to governments (Australia, New Zealand, UK) regarding proposed legislative change on cartel criminalisation (see list of publications). He is actively involved in promoting and supporting research into the emergent EU criminal law regime, through collaborative projects involving other European scholars and practitioners (e.g. research into the scope, objectives and juridical character of EU criminal law, centred on collaborative meetings at the College of Europe Natolin Centre in Warsaw in 2013 and 2014). In 2011, he was a visiting research fellow working within these fields at the University of Leuven.

Recent Publications (from 2008)

  • Human Rights in the Market Place : The Exploitation of Rights Protection By Economic Actors [with Naomi Salmon and Uta Kohl] (Ashgate Publishing, 2008), 252 + xii pp.
    Regulating Cartels in Europe [with Julian Joshua] (second edition, Oxford University Press, January 2010), 409 + xxvii pp.
    [with Julian Joshua] ‘Observations regarding the Commonwealth of Australia Invitation to Submit Comments on the Draft Legislation Introducing Criminal Penalties for Serious Cartel Conduct’, submitted to the Commonwealth of Australia Government, 29 February 2008.
  • ‘Capturing the Cartel’s Friends : Cartel Facilitation and the Idea of Joint Criminal Enterprise’, 34 (2009) European Law Review, 298-309.
  • [with Estella Baker] ‘From Past Imperfect to Future Perfect ? A Longitudinal Study of the Third Pillar’, 34 (2009) European Law Review, 25-54.
  • ‘A Pathology of Business Cartels : Original Sin or the Child of Regulation ?’ 1 (2010) New Journal of European Criminal Law, 44-58.
  • ‘Observations regarding the proposed criminalisation of conduct in New Zealand’, submitted to the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development’, 30 March 2010.
  • ‘The Anti-Cartel Enforcement Industry : Criminological Perspectives on Cartel Criminalisation’, Chapter 16 in Caron Beaton-Wells and Ariel Ezrachi (eds), Criminalising Cartels : A Critical Interdisciplinary Study of an International Regulatory Movement (Hart Publishing, 2011).
  • ‘Cartel Deterrence : The Search for Evidence and Argument’,56 (2011) The Antitrust Bulletin 345-376.
  • [with Julian Joshua] ‘Proposed Revision of the Cartel Offence’. submitted to the Department for Business Innovation and Skills, as part of the consultation, A Competition Law for Growth, June 2011
  • ‘Hard Core Cartel Conduct as Crime: The Justification for Criminalisation in the European Context’, 3 (2012) New Journal of European Criminal Law, 138-152.
  • [with Joanna Banach-Gutierrez] ‘Fundamental Rights in European Criminal Justice : an Axiological Perspective’, (2012) European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 239.
  • [with Joanna Banach-Guttierez] ‘The Emergent EU Criminal Policy: Identifying the Species’, 37 (2012) European Law Review 758.
  • [with Nicola Harding] ‘Representations of Governance in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Europe: The Iconography and Dramatic Presentation of the Sovereign Ruler’, 7 (2013) Law and Humanities 170.
  • [with Joanna Banach-Guttierrez), ‘EU Criminal Law and the Protection of Human Rights: the Emerging Interface’, Conference Proceedings: 13th International Conference on Human Rights, Elk, Poland, 2013 (Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn).
  • Cartel Biographies: Explaining and Understanding Cartel Collusion. Research project funded by the Leverhulme Trust, 2012-2014, Christopher Harding and Jennifer Edwards, Project Papers (web pages): Cartel Biographies (Project Description); Cartel Tales: Getting to Grips with the Biographical Method; Cartel Recidivism; Ontology: Cartel Boxing, Cartelist Circling, Cartel Orbiting and Cartel Mapping; Anecdote, Vignette and Quantification: A Biographical Dilemma. *
  • ‘The Interplay of Criminal and Administrative Law in the Context of Market Regulation: the Case of Serious Competition Infringements’ (keynote presentation for W G Hart Legal Workshop, London, June 2012, and published in the workshop proceedings publication: V Mitsilegas, P Alldridge and C Leonidas (eds), Globalisation, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Theoretical, Comparative and Transnational Perspectives (Hart Publishing), 2015).Ch 9, pp 199-217.
  • Contribution to The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law (A Arnull and D Chalmers, eds), chapter on ‘EU Criminal Law’ (Oxford University Press, 2015) Ch 32, pp 837-866.
  • [with Jennifer Edwards] Cartel Criminality : The Pathology and Mythology of Antitrust Collusion (Ashgate Publishing, 2015), xxv + 253 pp.
  • ‘The Relationship between EU Criminal law and Competition Law’, Chapter 12 in: Valsamis Mitsilegas, Maria Bergstrom and Theodore Konstadinides (eds), Research Handbook on EU Criminal Law (Edward Elgar, 2016), pp 249-71.
  • [with Caron Beaton-Wells and Jennifer Edwards] ‘Leniency and criminal sanctions in anti-cartel enforcement: Happily married or uneasy bedfellows ?’, Chapter 12 in: Caron Beaton-Wells and Christopher Tran (eds), Anti-Cartel Enforcement in a Contemporary Age: The Leniency Religion (Hart Publishing, 2015).
  • [with Simon Garrett and Shisheng Wang] ‘Game Playing and Understanding Decision-Making within Legal Frameworks: the Use of Computerised Simulation’, 24 (2015) Information and Communications Technology Law, 1-15.
  • EU Criminal Law and Crime Policy: Values, Principles and Methods [collection co-edited with Joanna Banach-Gutierrez], Routledge, 2016. Contributions: (with Joanna Banach-Gutierrez): ‘EU Criminal Law: National Boundaries and the European Penal Rainbow’ (Chapter 4 ); and ‘Tasks for Criminology in the Field of EU Criminal Law and Crime Policy’ (Chapter 8).
  • ‘The Role of Whistleblowing and Leniency in Detecting and Preventing Economic and Financial Crime: A Game of Give and Take ?’ – contribution (Chapter 5) to Katelin Ligeti and Vanessa Franssen (eds), Challenges in the Field of Economic and Financial Crime in Europe, Hart Publishing, 2017.

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